Analysis To The Traits Of A Person Using 16 PF
Personality can be defined as an individual’s pattern of behavior. It is derived from the Greek word “Person” which referred to a mask worn by theatrical players in ancient Greek drama t represent the character and the role of an actor. Therefore personality is related to behavior. Every individual has a personality and it is considered as a person’s unique psychological signature. Psychological refers to cognition and behavior and signature to refer to distinctive character almost like a trademark.
Personality could be the combination of behavior patterns that form an individual. However, if a person show one behavior patterns one day and changes the next day, such behavior cannot be called personality. For any behavior pattern to be called personality, the person should display the pattern of a behavior for a long time. Therefore personality is an individual’s patterns of behavior that sustain over a long period of time. However, personality is not entirely static but for a behavior to be considered a personality an individual must show relatively stable behavior patterns.
According to Allport, Personality is the dynamic organization with in the individual of those psychological systems that determine his/her unique adjustment to his her environment (1957)
Trait theory of Cattell: To behave in the similar, distinctive pattern in various types of situation is called trait. According to a highly meaningful and actual view of existence in humanity, if a work of an individual is totally altruistic, then it is called as a trait. Allport stated that human behaviors can be indicated by 17953 words. R B Cattell, studying most of the factors, did factors analysis with the purpose of combining possible tendencies into a same pattern. Hence he found 16 personality factors. According to the theory, in 16 PF, the left extremes and right extremes are the traits of an individual that are dominant, intense and comes frequently. In the standard ten score, scores 1, 2, 3 and 8, 9, 10 can be taken as the traits. Often people has 4 t0 7 traits. The 16 personality factors are briefly described as below.
To find out the traits of personality by using 16 PF.
Information of the Subject
Name: Hari Sharma (changed)
Education Background: Master Degree
Occupation: Private Job
Salary: 30,000 Monthly
Economic status: Middle Class
Date: June 28, 2018
Time: 10 am – 01 pm
Place: Subject office room.
Materials and Equipment’s:
- 16 PF Questionnaire
- Answer Sheet
- Manual -16 PF Orientation
- Manual -Norms for the 16 PF -forms A and B
- Scoring Key
- 16 PF test profile
- Pen /pencil
- Chair table
The sixteen Personality Factor (16 PF) questionnaire was first developed by Raymond Catell in the 1940s. It is a test that measures the 16 basic personality traits in standard Ten (Sten) scores. Some of the 16 basic personality factors like warmth, intelligence, emotional stability, dominance, surgency, amiability, sensibility, abstractedness, artistic ability, assertiveness, self-stuffiness, radicalism etc.
The 16 Pf -Form A has 187 questions. Each question has three alternatives answer. A separate answer sheet is provided for the subject to mark her answers. Although it is a self-administered personality test, the final calculation and interpretation is done by the test taker.
The test measures once the answer sheet is marked, with the help of scoring key the test taker calculates the scores which are called the raw scores. These raw score are then converted to Sten scores are then marked in the 16 PF Test Profile sheet. In this sheet, the marked dots can be connected to sketch a graphical representation of the Standard Ten Score.
The Sten scores of 1, 2 and 3 are considered low and 8, 9 and 10 are considered high. These scores are used to interpret the subject’s profile and therefore these personality factors are important in recognizing her personality traits. The scores from 4 to 7 are considered average.
The manual (in #3 above) comprises orientation to the 16 PF test, the design and construction, instruction, principles and mechanisms of scoring, converting raw scores to Sten scores, interpretation of the primary factors, brief descriptions of all the 16 personality factors, second order scores calculating procedures, followed by the bibliography.
The second manual (material # 4 also consists of a brief orientation followe16 d by norm tables which are further classified to male and female group of various.
These are the primary source traits covered by the 16 PF Test:
Factor A warmth -A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be cool, reserved, distant, impersonal, Sizothymia and a person obtaining high Sten score (8-10) is considered warm, outgoing, easy going participating attentive to others, Affeclothymia, formerly cyclothymia.
Factor B: Reasoning – A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to have a lower mental capacity and concrete thinking, whereas a person obtaining high Sten score (8-10) is considered to be intelligent, bright, fast-learner.
Factor C: Emotional Stability – A person obtaining low score (1-3) is considered to be easily affected by feelings, easily annoyed, and has lower ego strength; whereas, a person obtaining high Sten score (8-10) is considered to be mature, emotionally stable, calm etc.
Factor E: Dominance – A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be co-operative, accommodating, submissive, whereas, a person obtaining high Sten score (8-10) is considered to be dominant, bossy, competitive, forceful, stubborn, Dominance.
Factor F: Liveliness – A person obtaining low score (1-3) is considered to be serious, sober, restrained careful, desurgency; whereas, a person obtaining high Sten score (8-10) is considered to be enthusiastic, cheerful, spontaneous, surgency.
Factor G: Rule Consciousness – A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be expedient, non-confirming, weaker super ego strength, whereas a person obtaining high score (8-10) is conscientious, dutiful, rule-bound etc.
Factor H: Social boldness- A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be shy hesitant, intimidated, Threptic, whereas a person obtaining high score (8-10) is considered to be bold, venturesome, uninhibited, parmia.
Factor I: Sensitivity -A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be tough minded, realistic, objective, Harria; whereas a person obtaining high score (8-10) is considered to be tender-minded, sensitive Premsia.
Factor L: Vigilance – A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be, trusting accepting unsuspecting, Alaxia; whereas a person obtaining high score (8-10) is considered to be wary, skeptical suspicious, Protension.
Factor M: Abstractedness – A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be practical grounded, down to earth, Praxemia expedient, whereas a person obtaining high score (8-10) is considered to be imaginative, absent-minded, impractical Autia.
Factor N: Privateness- A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be forthright, open genuine, Artlessness; a person obtaining high score (8-10) is considered to be private discreet, shrewd, diplomatic, shrewdness.
Factor O: Apprehension- A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be self-assured secure self-satisfied, whereas a person obtaining high score (8-10) is considered to be self-doubting, self-blaming, guilt -prone, insecure etc.
Factor Q1: Openness to change – A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be conservative, traditional, whereas a person obtaining high score (8-10) is considered to be open to change, experimenting liberal critical etc.
Factor Q2: Self Reliance – A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be group oriented follower, whereas a person obtaining high score (8-10) is considered to be self-reliant, individualistic, prefers own decisions etc.
Factor Q3: Perfectionism – A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be lax, tolerates disorders, flexible, whereas a person obtaining high score (8-10) is considered to be organized, socially precise, self-disciplined.
Factor Q4: Tension- A person obtaining low Sten score (1-3) is considered to be relaxed tranquil, composed whereas a person obtaining high score (8-10) is considered to be tense, frustrated high energy driven.
Methods and Procedure: Arrangement: Two chairs were positioned in the line ‘L’ position. The room was well ventilated with open windows so the light and air can be easily passed. A table was placed next to the subject for him to use it to write on. Then the following instruction was given.
“Please read the question carefully. For each question, you must shade the corresponding number in the answer sheet. There are three answers to each questions and the test result will be more authentic if you answer in the “uncertain “category as less as possible. There are no right or wrong answers, so try not to think too much about the question and answer them with honesty. Your answer will be kept confidential.”
The subject was given 16 PF questionnaire and the answer sheet. He was then asked to shade in the corresponding box of the answer sheet. After giving instruction about the test, to the subject started to mark his answer in the answer sheet. Then the subject was asked how he felt about the test after finishing the test.
“At time it was necessary to mark in the “uncertain” category, it took longer than expected sometimes it seems IQ test too. (Smile).”
|Factors||Low score Description||Score||High score description|
|A||Cool, Reserved, Critical Detached Formal Aloof (Sizothymia)||5||Warm Outgoing, kindly, easygoing, participating, likes people|
|B||Concrete Thinking, less Intelligent||5||Abstract thinking , More Intelligent, Bright|
|C||Affected by feelings, Emotionally less stable, easily upset (lower ego strength)||6||Emotionally stable, Mature, faces reality calm|
|E||Submissive, Humble Mild easily Led Accommodating||9||Dominant, Assertive, Aggressive, Competitive, Bossy|
|F||Sober, Restrained, Prudent, taciturn, serious||5||Enthusiastic, spontaneous, heedless, Expressive, Cheerful.|
|G||Expedient, Disregards, Rules, self-indulgent,||4||Conscientious, conforming, moralistic, staid, Rule Bound
|H||Shy, Threat Sensitive, Timid, Hesitant, Intimidated.||6||Bold, Venturesome, uninhabited, Can take stress|
|I||Tough minded, Self-reliant, No nonsense, Rough, Realistic||7||Tender minded, sensitive, Over Protected, Intuitive, Refined
|L||Accepting Condition, Easy to get on with||8||Suspicious, Hard to Fool, Distrustful, Skeptical|
|M||Practical, Concerned with ‘Down to Earth ‘Issues steady||7||Imaginative, Absent Minded, Absorbed in Thought, Impractical|
|N||Forthright, Unpretentious, Open, Genuine, artless||5||Shrewd, Polished, socially Aware, Diplomatic Calculating|
|O||Self-Assured, Secure, Feels Free Of Guilt, Untroubled, Self-satisfied||5||Apprehensive, self-Blaming, Guilt prone, Insecure, worrying.|
|Q1||Conservative, Respecting Traditional Ideas||5||Experimenting, Liberal, Critical, And Open To Change.|
|Q2||Group Oriented, A ‘Joiner ‘and Sound follower, Listen to others.||3||Self-sufficient, resourceful, prefers own decision.|
|Q3||Undisciplined self-conflict, Careless of social Rules.||4||Following Self Image, Socially precise Compulsive.|
|Q4||Relaxed, Tranquil, composed, Has low Drive, Unfrustrated.||5||Tense, Frustrated, Over wrought, has high drive.|
In 16 PF Test Profile, the standard score between 5 and 6 are considered normal personalities where as standard score from 1 to 3 is descriptors of low range and standard score from 8 to 10 represents high descriptive score. The subject has low score on factors C-2, M-3 and Q-4. The subject scored higher than average score in the personality factors L-9 and higher in O-7. The subject has 4 dominants traits. Three of the traits are on the left extreme and 2 of them are on the right extreme.
Discussion and Conclusion
The subject according to the 16 PF, shows the personalities seems expedient, disregards rules, self-indulgent. This means the subject is tend to be unsteady in purpose. They are often casual and lacking in effort for group undertakings and cultural demands. Their freedom from group influences may lead to anti-social acts, but at times makes them more effective while their refusal to be bound by rules causes them to have less somatic upset from stress.
Also, the subject will demonstrate Dominance. This means dominant, assertive, Aggressive, Stubborn, competitive Bossy. The personalities seems to be austere, law unto themselves, hostile or extra punitive, authoritarian, and disregarding of authority. The subject also seems Protension. This means subject is suspicious, hard to fool distrustful skeptical the personalities seems involved in their own egos and are self-opinionated and interested in internal mental life. Usually they are deliberate in their actions, unconcerned about other people, and poor team members.
The subject is assertive, independent, aggressive stubborn kind of person.
Lok Raj Pathak is a Professional Computer Engineer and Technology enthusiast. He has completed Master in Science in Information Technology (M. Sc. IT) and Master in technology in Computer Science and Engineering (M. Tech. Eng). He usually writes in science and technology, life style and religion.